Islamic Spain: Three Faiths: One Land
http://www.islamicspain.tv/Three-Faiths-One-Land/index.html

WEB RESOURCE Medieval Spain fostered an enlightened culture in which three great Abrahamic traditions -- Judaism, Christianity, and Islam -- co-existed, interacted, and flourished. In many ways, this period offers the closest model to the global world today, in the way that Christians, Muslims, Jews, and others intermixed, competed, and tried to cooperate. These three major faiths inextricably share common roots, beliefs, stories, and history.

Access Islam: Timeline 660 to 2005
http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/accessislam/timeline.html

WEB RESOURCE This timeline of events related to the founding and spread of Islam covers from 660 to 2005, with sections on the life of Mohammed and the first caliphs, the Umayyads, the Abbasids, The Sejuks, and Fatimids, the Ottomans, Safavids and Mughals, and the Modern Era. A last timeline from 1530 to 2006 highlights the history of Muslims in America.

A Virtual Walking Tour: The Alhambra
http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/200604/alhambra/default.htm

VIRTUAL TOUR From the comfort of your computer view the incredible sites of the 13-14th c. Alhambra accompanied by a private audio guide. This virtual museum is a way for modern students to understand the cultural achievements of Muslim Spain.

Suleymaniye Mosque, The
http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/200605/suleymaniye/default.htm

VIRTUAL TOUR The Suleymaniya Mosque in Istanbul is an icon of imperial religious architecture in the Ottoman Empire. It was built during Suleyman's reign in the 1500's.

Cities of Light: The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain
http://www.islamicspain.tv/

WEB VIDEO This series of clips provides an overview of the 700-year era of Muslim and then Christian-led societies in Spain were religiously pluralistic. This diversity fostered the sharing of knowledge that led to a great flowering of culture and scientific achievement.

Discover Islamic Art: Virtual Exhibitions
http://www.discoverislamicart.org/exhibitions/ISL/

VIRTUAL ART EXHIBITIONS This is a rich set of art images classified by historic caliphate, empire, theme, or style.

Wars of Religion
http://www.lepg.org/wars.htm

WEB RESOURCE This is the first of two scholarly articles describing the major events and ideas of the Wars of Religion that enveloped Europe from the early 1560s to the late 1590s.

Byzantium and Islam: Age of Transition
http://www.metmuseum.org/exhibitions/listings/2012/byzantium-and-islam

WEB VIDEO This Metropolitan Museum site is a set of three illustrated lectures supporting an exhibit Byzantium and Islam: Age of Transition. It focuses on the differences in idea of art between early Christians and the new Muslim faith.

Heretics
http://www2.kenyon.edu/projects/margin/heresy.htm

WEB RESOURCE Heretics were religious groups whose beliefs did not wholly conform with the medieval Church's doctrines. While the groups themselves ranged in beliefs, their commonality was their rejection of and peresecution by the Church. Many of the groups still thought of themselves as Christians despite the Church's rejection. Some felt that the Church had changed too much and that it, in fact, was heretical. In this way, heretics were both within and outside the Church. It is often hard to determine whose beliefs were truly heretical. The existence and persecution of heresy became more prominent during the period 1100-1500.

Life in the Middle Ages (Europe)
http://www.middle-ages.org.uk/life-in-middle-ages.htm

WEB RESOURCE This site provides an outline of daily life during the English middle ages. There are short descriptors for not only the lives of nobles and peasants but that of the monks and nuns as well. One wishes for more information to link from this well organized outline.

Famous Trials: Galileo Galilei 1633
http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/galileo/galileo.html

WEB RESOURCE This site by Douglas Linder of the University of Missouri Kansas City Law School provides background on the trial of Galileo for writing and teaching ideas that challenged Church doctrine in the late Middle Ages. This rich site has a full range of resource materials on all aspects of the trial. This trial is considered one of the most important public clashes between religion and science in Western history.

The Crusades - Aramco Magazine
http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/197003/

WEB RESOURCE This issue of Aramco Magazine explores the Arab view of the Crusades. Here is the introduction: To most Christians - at least to most western Christians - word "crusades" evokes rather splendid images of heroic knights in chain mail and crosses cantering off to the Holy Land to throw down the gauntlet to a bearded foe who calls his God Allah and is inevitably treacherous, cruel and cowardly. In the Arab view many crusaders were ruthless mercenaries to whom the cross they wore so brazenly was no more than a convenient shield for excesses unequaled in history. It is a view that also promotes the curious belief that the Christians of Europe somehow had a clearer title to the Holy Land than the Arabs who lived there and that suggests a holy war is good when called a "crusade" and evil when it is called a "jihad". To the Arabs, after all, this influx of Europeans was no more than another invasion of their territory, one that they had not only a right to repel but according to the teachings of their religion, a duty to fight.

The Spanish Inquisition
http://blogs.utexas.edu/15minutehistory/2013/01/30/episode-10-the-spanish-inquisition/

PODCAST The Spanish Inquisition has cast a long shadow in the public imagination, with Inquisitors playing the role of villain on stage and screen. But what was the Inquisition-really? Established in 1480 to deal with heresies under King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, the Spanish Inquisition was a highly regulated institution with enormous political and legal power whose influence reached all the way to the Americas for over three hundred years. This University of Texas 15-Minute History podcast features Miriam Bodian, Professor, Department of History discussing these issues.

Among the Norse Tribes: The Remarkable Account of Ibn Fadlan
http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/199906/among.the.norse.tribes-the.remarkable.account.of.ibn.fadlan.htm

WEB RESOURCE When Vikings or Norsemen of mercantile inclination were making their way east in the middle ages they met Muslim traders. The Muslims paid for Norse wares with silver coins. The contact between Norsemen and Arab Muslims is a fascinating story that had huge impact on both cultures.

The Safavid Empire (1501-1722)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/history/safavidempire_1.shtml

WEB RESOURCE This BBC Religions website is an overview of the Safavid Empire, a Shi'ite theocracy that ruled what is now Iran from approximately 1501-1722. During this period Safavid was the center for art, architecture, poetry, and philosophy, and its capital Isfahan was one of the most beautiful cities in the world.

The Crime of Galileo: Indictment and Abjuration of 1633
http://legacy.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1630galileo.asp

PRIMARY SOURCE This selection from the Modern History Sourcebook is a translation of the indictment of Galileo for "holding as true a false doctrine...that the sun is immovable in the center of the world...that the earth moves...for having pupils whom you instructed in the same opinions..."

The Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates
http://www.history.org.uk/resources/general_resource_7376_116.html

WEB VIDEOS In this set of four short podcasts Emeritus Professor Gerald Hawting of SOAS, University of London provides an introduction to the Umayyad (661-750) and Abbasid (750-1258) Caliphates.

Martin Luther and the 95 Theses
http://www.history.com/topics/martin-luther-and-the-95-theses

WEB RESOURCE & VIDEO This History Channel article and short video describes the reasons behind Martin Luther's initial criticism of the Church and his writing of the 95 Theses.

Origins of Calvinism
http://www.history.com/topics/reformation/videos/the-origins-of-calvinism

WEB VIDEO This short History Channel video puts the ideas of John Calvin in context of other events and thinkers of the Protestant Reformation in the 1500s.

The Diet of Worms: Martin Luther on Trial
http://www.christian-history.org/diet-of-worms.html

WEB RESOURCE This resource on the famous trial of Martin Luther does a good job of putting his actions and that of the Charles V in context, both personally and politically.

The Crusades - Pilgrimage or Holy War?
https://ca.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/2cf8a1d2-f874-4a86-b753-874744b0ecbb/the-crusades-pilgrimage-or-holy-war-crash-course-world-history-15/#.WWg70IqQxE4

WEB RESOURCE In this PBS Crash Course in World History segment, John Green teaches about the Crusades embarked upon by European Christians in the 12th and 13th centuries. The traditional historical perception of the Crusades has been one of European Colonization thinly veiled in religion. John covers the First through the Fourth Crusades, describing which were successful, which were well-intentioned yet ultimately destructive, and which were just plain crazy.

Mansa Musa and Islam in Africa
https://ca.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/67ed6205-c647-48eb-b53d-b10cff939bb9/mansa-musa-and-islam-in-africa-crash-course-world-history-16/#.WWg9Y4qQxE4

WEB RESOURCE This PBS Crash Course in World History lecture, John Green teaches about Sub-Saharan Africa during the Middle Ages. This period includes a lot of trade, converting to Islam, visits from Ibn Battuta, trade, beautiful women, some impressive architecture, and several empires. John not only covers the West African Malian Empire, which is the one Mansa Musa ruled, but he discusses the Ghana Empire, and even gets over to East Africa as well to discuss the trade-based city-states of Mogadishu, Mombasa, and Zanzibar.

Gunpowder Plot
http://www.history.com/topics/gunpowder-plot

WEB RESOURCE This History Channel provides interesting information about a significant event in the Reformation history of Europe. The Gunpowder Plot was a failed attempt to blow up Englandís King James I (1566-1625) and the Parliament on November 5, 1605.